The human body naturally produces hyaluronic acid, which can be found in the skin, connective tissues, and joints. It serves as a humectant, attracting water to moisturize hair and skin, while also reducing friction in joints and stabilizing tissues by acting as a shock absorber. Skin cells, specifically fibroblasts and keratinocytes, primarily produce hyaluronic acid which holds water in the extracellular matrix between cells, contributing to skin elasticity and acting as a natural water reservoir. Hyaluronic acid also helps with tissue repair.
The extent to which hyaluronic acid in cosmetic products can penetrate the skin is a matter of controversy. A determining factor is the molecular size of the substance, which is also referred to as molecular mass or weight. Products in the skincare market can contain a wide range of molecular weights and sizes of hyaluronic acid, whereas hyaluronic acid in human skin is typically of medium molecular weight. The skin is less effectively penetrated by larger molecules in general, so the notion that more is better does not always hold true.
So, hydrating the skin and creating a protective barrier to prevent water loss is effectively achieved by high (1000 - 1500 kDa) molecular weight hyaluronic acid.
Using medium molecular weight hyaluronic acid (ranging from 600 to 1000 kDa) can improve skin texture and prevent dryness by creating a protective film on the skin while moisturizing it. Low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (ranging from 50 to 300 kDa) is of particular interest to consumers as it not only forms a surface film but also enhances hydration in deeper layers by transporting water molecules. The protective barrier function of the skin is strengthened while restoring moisture, and fine lines are reduced by hyaluronic acid, which is known to effectively protect against water loss and increase skin elasticity. The ideal size for hyaluronic acid molecules, however, is still a topic of debate.
Moon Cosmetics product development experts suggest choosing cosmetic items that have varying sizes of hyaluronic acid molecules. The skin can benefit more when these types of products are used in combination. Using a combination of hyaluronic acid molecules with both ultra-low and high-molecular-weight can result in achieving two goals: maximum skin hydration and intensive restoration of skin elasticity, which reduces wrinkles. It is recommended to also verify if the product contains additional beneficial substances. Moon Cosmetics' Hyaluronic acid serum promotes proper function of the skin's barrier layer by moisturizing and restoring it with two different molecular weight hyaluronic acid molecules and eight other active ingredients.
Undoubtedly, hyaluronic acid is a standout ingredient in cosmetics, with numerous potential applications and benefits in skin care. Nevertheless, it is important to be mindful of the type of hyaluronic acid present in a cosmetic product and to evaluate the potential advantages of such a product in your particular skin care regimen.